This book chronicles the emergence of a national feeling in the theatres of Northern and Eastern Europe from the mid-eighteenth to the late nineteenth centuries. Using original documents and sources, including architects' plans, royal edicts, censors' reports, contemporary journalism, directors' blocking notes, memoirs and letters, this volume provides a chronological exploration of theatrical trends in eight countries. The documents reveal that in Denmark, Sweden and Norway the gradual development from royal patent houses and municipal theatres led to a genuinely public and Scandinavian institution. In Poland, Hungary, Bohemia and Romania, theatrical records reveal the evolution of distinctly national repertoires and organizations removed from foreign influences. Similar sources demonstrate that Russia pursued native concepts of acting and playwriting after the retreat of Napoleon that culminated in the foundation of the Moscow Art Theatre. The volume contains numerous illustrations, the source location for each document, and a substantial bibliography.
Pennell was a 19th century classics scholar and schoolmaster, and this is his comprehensive look at Ancient Rome from its founding to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century. From the preface: "This compilation is designed to be a companion to the author's History of Greece. It is hoped that it may fill a want, now felt in many high schools and academies, of a short and clear statement of the rise and fall of Rome, with a biography of her chief men, and an outline of her institutions, manners, and religion. For this new edition the book has been entirely rewritten, additional matter having been introduced whenever it has been found necessary to meet recent requirements. The penults of proper names have been marked when long, both in the text and Index. The Examination Papers given are introduced to indicate the present range of requirement in leading colleges. The maps and plans have been specially drawn and engraved for this book. The design has been to make them as clear and open as possible; consequently, names and places not mentioned in the text have, as a rule, been omitted."